The following tutorial is for those who are new to our technology, so they are not formulated with the full need of science, in a much more direct, understandable style.

Overview: Imagine pulling sixteen wires thinner than a hair into a thin injection needle and then stacking their ends in a row at the tip of the needle. This is implanted in the brain of an experimental animal - or later even a human. Thus approx. At a length of 2 millimeters, you can measure the electrical activity of the cells almost one by one in 16 places. With such a method, for example, the exact source of epilepsy can be determined and surgery can be performed at the right site for healing. In another type of electrode, small tubes can be passed next to the leads, through which drug can be injected at the appropriate site. There is also an electrode that no longer has a hypodermic needle, only the leads are glued one after the other. This pushes even less space out of the brain, causing less damage.

Steel tube electrode with capillary: The stiffness of this electrode is given by a steel tube, so it is directly suitable for piercing the meninges. In addition to platinum-iridium leads, fluid, such as drugs or other substances that act directly on brain cells, can be delivered through glass-fiber capillary tubes. Examples include adrenaline, or even THC, a drug known to be a hallucinogenic substance. Thus, their direct effect can be examined in the measured area.

Polyimide tube deep electrode: Unlike the conical deep electrode, this is a simpler version, but is equally suitable for long-term implantation. The body of the electrode here consists of a polyimide tube, which can be up to 40 inches long, so that deeper areas of the brain can be examined with it, but a rigid guide must be used to reach the target area to be examined.

Conical dowel electrodes: Unlike standard electrodes, there is no longer a steel needle or polyimide tube at the tip, but the adhesive is tapered to take up much less space in the area to be tested.

Averkin electrode: Here the focus was on the special need to make the size even smaller. Thus, the type was composed by the method of making the conical electrode, only in an even smaller size, with an outer diameter of 150 microns, which almost rivals the thinness of the hair. In this we have to imagine the 8-16 tiny small electrode points, so here the brain area can be examined almost cell by cell. However, due to its size, it was also necessary to use materials that allow the electrode to be handled and moved. For this reason, several "thickenings" have been added, a polyimide tube, a steel tube and a polyethylene tube, and then the movement of the whole electrode can be solved with a so-called Averkin driver.

Special developments: At the time, in 1994, there was a request for an electrode that could be implanted in the brain to monitor the reactions of brain cells during surgery. The electrode was completed, implanted in the patient's brain, surgery was performed, and when the epileptic seizure came, the exact location and focal point could be determined with the help of the electrode. So the doctor performing the surgery said, "We operated between points 4 and 5!" The surgery was successful, the patient was healed! This has been followed by further requests that, for example, an electrode such as the one that already exists is needed, with only other extra needs. The production methods have been developed and the types that satisfy the extra needs have been slowly completed. Examples are the so-called toroidal electrode, which is supplemented with a fiber optic capillary or is still under development, and which surrounds one of the nerve bundles running in the body.

The special feature of the production - like each electrode - is made by hand under a microscope, individually. For this reason, it is not a problem to occasionally change a special need, such as the placement of several electrode points, other diameters or lengths, or possibly fiber optics, capillaries. In addition, solving other extra needs is a challenge. Examples are an electrode that can be implanted in a mouse heart, or a matrix electrode for examining cells cultured from fetal stem cells on a microscopic slide, or a lower-cost comb electrode for examination on a brain slice. animal Experiments

We love animals. The puppy is cute and can be a loyal companion. And how delicious the Sunday chicken soup is, followed by the fried meat with mashed potatoes and salad. But think about it when a family member has epilepsy, for example! In order to perform more accurate surgeries, research is needed on how the brain works. It is not possible to have a perfect operation on a human being at once, it has to be practiced before, and unfortunately it comes at a price. To keep the sick family member healthy again. Animal testing is therefore needed to achieve a much higher goal.